Database management is a method for managing the data that supports a business's operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications making edits as needed as well as monitoring changes in data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company that supports decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database is a collection of tables that store data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of fields called attributes that represent facts about data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model, created by E. F. "Ted" Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to update many sections of the database.
Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.